2 minutes

# Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE) from Random OLE

The other day I was trying to remember how to construct a simple Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE) from Random OLE. I couldn’t find the formula online and it took a few trials to reconstruct it, so I decided to keep it here. There is nothing deep but it’s a good way to recap what OLE is.

Oblivious Linear Evaluation is a two-party protocol. Alice holds an input *x* from some ring and Bob holds two inputs *(a,b)*. They want to compute *ax+b* without revealing anything else (i.e. Alice gets *ax+b* and doesn’t learn anything about *a* or *b*, and Bob doesn’t learn anything about *x*). This picture from Peter Scholl^{1} summarizes the functionality:

Random OLE is a variation of OLE where the inputs *x,a,b* are random instead of being chosen by the participants.

Then, it is a fact that we can construct (standard) OLE from Random OLE. But how? The idea is to use the outputs of the Random OLE as one-time pads for the true OLE inputs. Here is the explicit protocol:

- Run Random OLE with (random) inputs \(x_r, a_r, b_r\):

$$A: x_r \longrightarrow R-OLE \longleftarrow (a_r, b_r): B$$

$$A: a_r x_r + b_r \longleftarrow R-OLE$$

- Exchange the true inputs \(x,a,b\) – carefully padded with the random values:

$$A: (x - x_r) \longrightarrow B $$

$$A \longleftarrow a_r(x-x_r) + b - b_r : B$$

$$A \longleftarrow (a - a_r): B$$

- Finally, Alice can reconstruct the desired output:

$$(a_r x_r + b_r) + a_r(x-x_r) + b - b_r + (a - a_r)x = a_r x + (a - a_r)x + b = ax + b$$

We can verify that in the honest-but-curious case Alice and Bob don’t learn each other’s inputs.

Source: 12th BIU Winter School ↩︎